Reproduction Process In Humans Pdf 11
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The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BPA) identifies forced sterilization as an act of violence and reaffirms the rights of women, including women with disabilities, to found and maintain a family, to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health, and to make decisions concerning reproduction free from discrimination, coercion, and violence.
Relaxin is crucial to the female reproductive process. Relaxin levels increase after ovulation during the second half of a woman's menstrual cycle, where it is believed to relax the wall of the uterus and prepare it for pregnancy. If a woman does not conceive, levels drop until the next cycle.If the woman does conceive, relaxin levels continue to grow through the first trimester, aiding in implantation and placenta growth. This hormone also stops contractions as the tiny baby grows to prevent early delivery. At the end of pregnancy, when labor begins, relaxin helps to relax the ligaments in the pelvis to allow it to stretch as the baby leaves the mother's body.Other effects of relaxin have surfaced in recent studies, as new relaxin peptides have been discovered. Relaxin has been proven to lessen tissue fibrosis in many organs, and can also promote wound healing. Relaxin has also been found to reduce blood pressure by relaxing the blood vessels. This has led to more study into benefits of relaxin peptide treatment for certain diseases.
The Childrenand Family Relationships Act 2015 contains provisions on many aspects offamily law in Ireland such as adoption, guardianship and custody. However, itsmain focus is the legal framework for donor-assisted human reproduction inIreland.
The provisions set out in Parts 2 and 3 of the Children and FamilyRelationships Act 2015 provide a legal framework for the donor-assisted humanreproduction process including registeringthe births of children who are born in the State as a result of assistedhuman reproduction involving donated eggs or sperm or embryos. These provisionscame into effect on 4 May 2020.
From 4 May 2020, the birth mother and the intending parent (the mother'sspouse, civil partner or cohabitant) of a donor-conceived child (born as aresult of a donor assisted human reproduction procedure) can now registerwith the Registrar for Births, Deaths and Marriages, as parents.
After the birth of any child, the birth notification is set up on theregistration system. In the case of a DAHR birth, the parent(s) will have tosign a statutory declaration to confirm they consented to being the parent(s)of the child, and that no other is the parent of the child. The DAHR birthregistration system also differs from the existing registration of birthsprocess in 2 other ways.
The legal framework for donor-assisted human reproduction is complex. TheChildren and Family Relationships Act 2015 is the first Irish legislation todeal with the issue of donor-assisted human reproduction. It provides someclarity on the rights and responsibilities of the intending parents,donor-conceived children, donors and those involved in delivering fertilityservices. You can read more on all aspects of donor-assisted human reproductionin the November/December 2019 issue of Relate(pdf).
The human male and female reproductive cycles are controlled by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with hormones from reproductive tissues and organs. In both sexes, the hypothalamus monitors and causes the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. When the reproductive hormone is required, the hypothalamus sends a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to the anterior pituitary. This causes the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary into the blood. Note that the body must reach puberty in order for the adrenals to release the hormones that must be present for GnRH to be produced. Although FSH and LH are named after their functions in female reproduction, they are produced in both sexes and play important roles in controlling reproduction. Other hormones have specific functions in the male and female reproductive systems.
The control of reproduction in females is more complex. As with the male, the anterior pituitary hormones cause the release of the hormones FSH and LH. In addition, estrogens and progesterone are released from the developing follicles. Estrogen is the reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption; it is also responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of females. These include breast development, flaring of the hips, and a shorter period necessary for bone maturation. Progesterone assists in endometrial re-growth and inhibition of FSH and LH release.
The first half of the ovarian cycle is the follicular phase shown in Figure 24.15. Slowly rising levels of FSH and LH cause the growth of follicles on the surface of the ovary. This process prepares the egg for ovulation. As the follicles grow, they begin releasing estrogens and a low level of progesterone. Progesterone maintains the endometrium to help ensure pregnancy. The trip through the fallopian tube takes about seven days. At this stage of development, called the morula, there are 30-60 cells. If pregnancy implantation does not occur, the lining is sloughed off. After about five days, estrogen levels rise and the menstrual cycle enters the proliferative phase. The endometrium begins to regrow, replacing the blood vessels and glands that deteriorated during the end of the last cycle.
A reproductive endocrinologist is a physician who treats a variety of hormonal disorders related to reproduction and infertility in both men and women. The disorders include menstrual problems, infertility, pregnancy loss, sexual dysfunction, and menopause. Doctors may use fertility drugs, surgery, or assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in their therapy. ART involves the use of procedures to manipulate the egg or sperm to facilitate reproduction, such as in vitro fertilization.
Implantation is a process in which a developing embryo, moving as a blastocyst through a uterus, makes contact with the uterine wall and remains attached to it until birth. The lining of the uterus (endometrium) prepares for the developing blastocyst to attach to it via many internal changes. Without these changes implantation will not occur, and the embryo sloughs off during menstruation. Such implantation is unique to mammals, but not all mammals exhibit it. Furthermore, of those mammals that exhibit implantation, the process differs in many respects between those mammals in which the females have estrous cycles, and those mammals in which the females have menstrual cycles. Females in the different species of primates, including humans, have menstrual cycles, and thus similar processes of implantation.
As the zygote moves through the fallopian tube it undergoes several rounds of cell division, a process called cleavage. These cell divisions produce the inner cell mass (ICM), which will become the embryo, and the trophoblast, which surrounds the ICM and interacts with maternal tissues. Together, the ICM and the trophoblast are called the blastocyst. A blastocyst successfully implants in the uterus when, as the ZP exits the fallopian tube, the blastocyst leaves the ZP and binds to the endometrium.
The endometrium is one of the few uterine surfaces to which a blastocyst cannot always implant. The properties of the endometrium change, and only in a brief window can the blastocyst implant on the tissue. In humans, that window includes days six through ten after ovulation. Just prior to ovulation, the endometrium begins to thicken and to expand in response to the release of estrogen from the ovaries. As the embryo moves through the fallopian tubes, the endometrium proliferates, changes in shape, becomes receptive to implantation, and produces a hospitable environment for the embryo. Signaled by the release of progesterone from the ovaries, a series of changes called decidualization occurs. Decidualization includes the gathering of white blood cells around endometrial arterioles, or blood vessels leading from arteries to capillary beds. As that vasculature forms, a molecule that stores energy, called glycogen, accumulates in the expanding connective tissues of the uterus. Furthermore, the endometrium swells as interstitial fluid accumulates in it. The endometrium, swollen with interstitial fluid, vasculature, and nutrients, provides a hospitable environment for embryogenesis.
While unique to mammals as a reproductive process, implantation is not unique to the uterus and the trophoblast. In the 1980s, researchers found similarities between the invasive abilities of blastocysts and those of cancer cells. The same trophoblast enzymes that digest the endometrium are also used by tumor cells to burrow into tissues throughout body. Tumor cells use the same growth factors as the trophoblast to attract maternal blood vessels, which then interact with the chorion, and to provide nutrients to the expanding mass. In addition, the changes in the endometrium during decidualization such as swelling, the accumulation of white blood cells, and the general activation of the maternal immune system, are consistent with a response to the presence of pathogens or tumors.
This review describes the emerging global debate on the role of human rights childbirth. It is also tailored to a UK perspective in view of the Montgomery v. Lanarkshire  legal ruling and it implications to practice. We can never underestimate the power of humane care on health. The compassion and evidence based medicine agenda in healthcare is interconnected with human rights in healthcare, feeding into the principles of decision making and patient centred care. When this has not happened and there has been healthcare conflict, the power of storytelling serves to connect disparate parties to their common humanity. Narratives are an important aspect of restorative justice processes and we suggest that this could be beneficial in the field of human rights in childbirth. 2b1af7f3a8